Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried von Herder
Zusätzliche Namen
Johans Gotfrīds Herders
Herder was a teaching assistant in Riga at the Dome School (1764-1769), an assistant to the city librarian (1764-1769) and an assistant pastor in the churches of Gertrude and Jesus (1767-1769). Herder came to Riga at the invitation of Johann Gotthelf Lindner, the Rector of the Dome School, who moved to Königsberg. At the suggestion of his fellow student and friend Hamman, Herder met with patricians and merchants in Riga and became friends with the Berens family, and became part of the German intellectual circle of Riga. Herder formed a close friendship with the publisher Johann Friedrich Hartknoch and later his son. The Hartknochs published almost all of Herder's works from the Riga period and continued to publish Herder's manuscripts until the end of Herder's life in 1803. In 1766, in Riga, Herder was admitted to the Masonic Lodge Zum Schwert ("At the Sword"). With his works on German literature in Riga, Herder gained recognition in German-speaking Europe and began correspondence with the German poet Johann Ludwig Gleim (1719-1803) and the German writer, publisher and literary critic Friedrich Nicolai (1733-1811).
In 1769 Herder left Riga with Gustav Berens (1725 - 1792). On the way to Nantes, aboard a ship, Herder Journal meiner Reise im Jahr 1769 ("My Travel Journal", publ.1846) and never returned to Riga.
Herder has made a special contribution to folklore studies, incl. in the actualization of folk songs in Europe. Herder’s interest in Latvian folk seems to have been stirred by the tradition of celebrating Midsummer in the suburbs of Riga. Herder focused on collecting and systematizing folk songs since Riga period. He stimulated Baltic German interest in Latvian folklore. August Wilhelm Hupel, Herder’s associate and collaborator, sent him at least 78 lyrics of Latvian folk songs, with and without translations into German, and one musical notation for the tune. Hupel obtained them mainly from his German colleagues in Vidzeme - pastors in Latvian churches. Along with songs from other nations, Herder included eleven Latvian folk songs translated into German, along with commentaries, in Volkslieder (Folk Songs, 1778-79); a reprint of which was published under the title Stimmen der Völker in Liedern (The Voices of the People in Songs, 1807). This is the first work that introduces the European German-speaking reader to Latvian folk songs. Today, Latvian folk songs sent to Herder are stored in the Herder Archives in Berlin. It is an important testimony of the Latvian folk songs and their traditions in the 18th century.
Persönliche Information
Herder develops a close and lasting friendship with the Hartknochs, a family of publishers, when in Riga. Its importance can be measured not so much in terms of the exchange of ideas as it is in financial assistance. For some time, Herder was staying at the Hartknochs’ house, often plays musical instruments, while the Hartknochs hope that Heder will be their home tutor, which never happens. Not only do the Hartknochs pay Herder the highest royalties, but also occasionally manage Herder's correspondence, incl. Herder’s letters to his mother, and financially support his travels, incl. from Riga to Nantes in late spring of 1769. On the recommendation of Herder, Hartknoch publishes the works of the French philosopher Rousseau.
Herder became acquainted with Garlieb Helwig Merkel from Vidzeme already in Germany. Merkel stayed in Germany from 1796 to 1806. Herder also wrote a review of G.Merkel's "Latvians" (Erfurter Nachrichten, 1797) and, following Herder's recommendation, Merkel went to Copenhagen in 1797 to be a secretary of the Minister of Finance, Count Schimmelmann. After Herder's death, Merkel developed close friendship and correspondence with Herder's wife, Caroline Herder (1750-1809).
Herder was appointed to the nobility in 1802, after which he was given the title von before the surname.
Galerie der Zitate
"Das Herdersche in Herder ist in Riga gewachsen" [Herderiskais Herders ir izaudzis Rīgā].
Kurt Stavenhagen. Herder in Riga. Riga: G. Löffler, 1925, S.13.

"Mighty King of the Spirits, rich in Grace,
Known for "mischief", that can enchant you;
You love to ring the Latvian poetry clock.
Divine voices are heard - heard at the ends of the world."
Translated from: Auseklis. To Herder. Ozolu vaiņaki. Collected works by Auseklis. Riga: Gulbis [b.g.], p.245

"But even more excitement for the younger generation was in Herder’s imaginative and enthusiastic writings and his persona. For Goethe, meeting Herder in Strasbourg was, as he himself acknowledged, the most important event that determined the trajectory of his spirit and character. Herder was only five years older than Goethe, but experienced and self-reflective, with wide and new views on poetry, art, history, philosophy. Herder opened with his writings an understanding of true poetry, showing that poetry is not only the property and accessory of the so-called educated classes, but of all and every nation and nationality; that its source is in the views and feelings of the people, and that true poetry is natural and full of character; he glorified natural folk songs in contrast to art poetry (..) nature is superior to art, primordial to unnatural! (Urnatur wider Unnatur), same: "retourner à la nature" as in 1793, only a quiet sidewalk. "wider Unnatur), same: "retourner à la nature" as in 1793, only a silent ripple. "

Translated from: Rainis. From Goethe for new days. Literary review. Collected papers. Volume 18, Riga: Zinātne, 1982, 274.

"... Latvians also have to mark this noble spirit rich in ideas, who, with a deeper understanding of poetry than his predecessors, has contributed to the development of literature worldwide, especially, of course, in his fatherland Germany, and as a result has found our partially strewn creek."
Translated from: Ludis Bērziņš. Greznas dziesmas. Riga: Zinātne, 2007, 89.lpp.

"Bille cries (..) She can get to the fence of Herder's monument. At least there is a place to grip at and support her head. A pair of barely lit school windows illuminated by a single lamp are seen from across (..) Bille has to deal with it herself. She takes a deep breath, tries to compose herself and when ready lifts her eyes. Herder looks at her. Again, the boys turned the broken head upside down.
"You are not doing well eiter, old man," Bille sighs. There are a few short gasps, and she can finally release her grip on the cold grid. If only her legs were not so terribly painful."
Translated from: Vizma Belshevica. Billes skaistā jaunība. Riga: Jumava, 1999, p. [episode from study time at the 2nd Riga Polygraphy Vocational School, 1946-1948].


1903: Alexander von Freytag-Loringhoven. Herder in Riga: Festspiel in einem Aufzuge zu Herders 100jährigen Todestage [Paly. "Herder in Riga: Festive performance in One Act for the 100th Anniversary of the Death of Herder" - stamped copy, transcript. National Library of Latvia RXA 422, 25].
1904: K.Walter. Herders Wirken und Wachsen in Riga. Baltische Monatschrift, No. 57, S.28-49. [extensive publication dedicated to Herder's work in Riga]
1909: Georg Berkholz. Festvortrag bei Enthüllung des Herder-Denkmals, Geschichte des Wortes "baltisch". Riga: Jonck&Poliewsky.
1917: Arend Buchholtz. [Herder in Riga]. Ostsee und Ostland. Hrsg.von Dr.Otto Grautoff. I Die Baltischen Provinzen. Bd. 6 Bilder aus baltischer Vergangenheit. Berlin: F.Lehmann, S. 77-83. [general insight into Herder’s Riga period].
1978: Walter Dietze. Johann Gottried Herder: Weltbild, Menschbild, Wirkung. Weimar: Ständige Kommision für Kultur bei der Stadtverordnetenversammlung der Stadt Weimar. [Monograph on Herder's Life and Activities, Second Edition, 1980]
1989: Bultmann, Christoph. Herder als Schüler des Philologen Michaelis. Zur Rigaer Erstfassung der »Archäologie« Bückeburger Gespräche über Johann Gottfried Herder 1988: Älteste Urkunde des Menschengeschlechts. Hrsg. v. Brigitte Poschmann. Rinteln,
S. 64-80. [the article looks at a particular aspect of Herder's views, his concept of "archeology", the development of which began in Riga, and the influence of Johann David Michaelis (1717-1791) on Herder].
1990: Menze, Ernest A. Königsberg and Riga: the genesis and significance of Herder’s historical thought. Herder today: contributions from the International Herder Conference, Nov. 5-8, 1987, Stanford, California / edited by Kurt Mueller-Vollmer. BerliN; New York: W. de Gruyter, S. 90-107. [Herder's ideas on the historical perspective in Königsberg and Riga periods].
1991: Johann Gottfried Herder. Selected early works, 1764-1767: Addresses, essays and drafts; fragments on recent German literature. Ed. Ernest A.Menze, Karl Menges. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University [selection of Herder's articles, drafts, excerpts with commentaries of Riga period].
1996: Gisela von Busse. Herder auf Reisen: drei Kapitel aus seinem Leben: seinen Briefen, Tagebüchern, Schriften und nacherzählt. Hans-Busso von Busse. [Monograph on Herder's travels, beginning with a sea voyage to France from Riga].
1999: Paul Mitzenheim. Herder und Riga. Europa in der Frühen Neuzeit, ed. Erich Donnert, Vol. 5. Weimar: Böhlau, S. 495-503.
2004: Couturier, Daniel. Herder à Nantes et à Angers en 1769. Longué: Vieux Logis [includes Herder's sea voyage from Riga to Nantes in 1769].
2007: Tadeusz Zubiński. Herder w Rydze i inne szkice bałtyckie. Toruń : Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek [Herderu Rīgā un Baltijas skices].
2008: Singing the nations: Herder`s legacy. Ed.Dace Bula, Sigrid Rieuwerts. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag.
2013: John Vivian. Herders “weltmännische Bildung” in Riga 1764-1769. In: Triangulum 19 (2013), S. 87-118. [Riga period in Herder's Life as the time of evolvement of "Citizen of the World"].
2014: Guntis Šmidchens. Herder`s discovery of Baltic Songs. The power of song: nonviolent national culture in the Baltic singing revolution. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
2016: Kaspar Renner. Herder in Riga. 1764-1769: Quellen zur Wirkungsgeschichte. Zeitschrift für Germanistik 26 (2016), 118-133. [Herder's Riga period: source studies aspect].
2016: Bellmann, Tina. Die Interdependenz von Selbst- und Gotteserkenntnis: Herders Rigaer Predigten. J. G. HERDER: FROM COGNITION TO CULTURAL SCIENCE / VON DER ERKENNTNIS ZUR KULTURWISSENSCHAFT. Contributions based on the 2014 Conference of the International Herder Society at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Edited by Beate Allert. Heidelberg: Synchron, S. 49-62 [article includes analysis of Herder's Riga sermons].
2017: Raynal-Herder-Merkel. Transformationen der Antikolonialismusdebatte in der europäischen Aufklärung. Hrsg. von Zorl-Gothart Mix, Hinrich Ahrend in Zusammenarbeit mit Kristina Kandler [Insights into the European Enlightenment Polemics Against Colonialism among Rainal, Heder and Merkel].
2019: Kaspar Renner. Herder und die gelehrte Öffentlichkeit in Riga. Eine Relektüre der "Publikumsschrift" von 1756. Baltisch-deutsche Kulturbeziehungen vom 16. bis 19. Jahrhundert: Medien, Institutionen, Akteure. Bd, 2 Zwischen Aufklärung und Nationalem Erwachen. Hrsg. von Raivis Bičevskis, Jost Eickmeyer, Andris Levans. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, S.217-235.
Professionelle Tätigkeit
Herder worked in Riga as a teaching assistant in the Dome School, as assistant librarian for the city library and as assistant pastor for suburban churches. In Riga, Heder also wrote a lot about pedagogical, linguistic, religious, philosophical, etc. issues and composed occasional poetry, literary critical articles. Herder's list of works contains the most important works of the Riga period, as well as those that were first published in Riga during Herder's life.

The most important works of Riga period

1766: "The Sound of Songs at the Consecration of the Bikernieki St. Catherine's Church" is the only Herder’s work published in Latvian. This is a German translation of Christian Ravensberg, pastor of St. John's Church in Riga.
1767: Über die neuere Deutsche Literatur: Fragmente, als Beilagen zu den Briefen, die neueste Literatur betreffend . A collection of literary-critical articles in 3 volumes, more commonly known as Fragmente über die neuere Deutsche Literatur , or "Fragments of the latest German literature. With this work, Heder becomes widely known in the German-speaking European environment and acquires his correspondents, the most prominent German writers.
1769: Kritische Wälder. Oder Betrachtungen, die Wissenschaft und Kunst des Schönen betreffend, nach Maasgabe neuerer Schriften , or "Critical Forests. Or Reflections on Science and the Fine Arts," which puts an important emphasis not only on aesthetics but also on the philosophy of language.

First editions of 11 Latvian folk songs sent to Herder

1778/79: Volkslieder or "Folksongs", the collection consists of two parts, organized according to the thematic principle, 11 Latvian folk songs and comments are included in Part 2 (pages 87-92 and 111-113) .
1807: Stimmen der Völker in Liedern , or "Voices of the People in Songs", is a collection that is published after Herder's death. In Johann von Miller's arrangement, it acquired a new geographical principle. Miller starts with the introduction of Nordic (Scandinavian) songs and soon reaches the Baltics. Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian songs are published at the beginning of the collection (Latvian songs from pages 94 to 96).

Sermons and religious treatises

In his last sermon at the Church of Jesus, Heder emphasized that his sermons are for listening, but not for reading. Thus, some of the sermons, although preserved, were first published in Herder's collected works (33 vol., Berlin, 1877-1913) by Bernhard Suphan in the late 19th century, such as Über das Gebet , Über die Göttlichkeit und Gebrauch . After leaving Riga, in the last two decades of the 18th century, Herder still published his biblical and religious essays at Hartknoch’s publishing house in Riga.

Literary-critical, pedagogical and philosophical essays

Although collected works are published in Herder's lifetime, they are incomplete and many, including essays and speeches, fragments and drafts from the Riga period remain unpublished. A great deal of work in this regard is done by Herder's son Emil Gottfried von HERDER (1783-1855), who publishes Herder's manuscripts and letters in 1846 in 3 volumes (Volume 1 in 3 books; Volume 2 and Volume 3 in 2 books). J.G.Herder`s Lebensbild. Sein chronologisch-geordneter Briefwechsel, verbunden mit den hierhergehörigen Mittheilungen aus seinem ungedruckten Nachlasse, und mit den nöthigen Belegen aus seinen und seiner Zeitgenossen Schriften ("The Life of J.G. Herder. His chronologically arranged correspondence is published together with his writings from his unpublished heritage and the respective supplements from the articles written by him and his contemporaries”). This valuable publication is in the possession of the National Library of Latvia.

However, in the 19th and 20th centuries, when publishing Herder's collected works, new manuscripts previously unknown to the general public are often found. Herder's foundation at the Berlin State Library is crucial for studying his life and activities.

Birth time/place25.08.1744
Morąg, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland
Moronga /Mohrungen 18. gadsimtā ir Prūsijas teritorijā.
Residence1764 – 1769 (Datum ist ungenau)
Herdera laukums
Herdera laukums, Rīga

Norāde avīzē "Rigasche Stadtblätter" (1856, nr.5, S.39):...Bewohner des dem Hause des Hofgerichts-Advocaten Petersen gegenüber belegenen Schul-Eckhauses bei der kleinen Wage [Iedzīvotājs namā, kas atrodas galmatiesas advokāta Petersena mājai pretī pieguļošās skolas stūrī pie Mazajiem svariem].

Ausbildung1762 – 1764
University of Königsberg
Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Studējis teoloģiju, klausījies lekcijas pie I.Kanta, apmainījies ar idejām ar J.G.Hāmani, T.G.Hipelu, J.G.Šefneru un citiem
Working place00.01.1765 – 00.05.1769
Riga City Library
Rīgas Doma krusteja
Palasta iela 4, Rīga, LV-1050

Bibliotekārs, citos avotos - bibliotekāra palīgs.

24.02.1765 – 08.05.1769
Rīgas Domskola
Mazā Skolas iela, Rīga
Mazā Skolas iela, Rīga

1765. 14.02. Herders kārto teoloģisku eksāmenu; 1765. 24.02. apstiprināts Domskolas skolotāja palīga (Collaborator) amatā. 1769. 8.05. Lūgums atbrīvot no amata.

00.07.1767 – 09.05.1769
Parish of Jesus Church of Riga
Rīgas Jēzus baznīca
Elijas iela 18, Latgales priekšpilsēta, Rīga, LV-1050, Latvia
Strādā par mācītāja palīgu jeb adjunktu.

06.07.1767 – 08.05.1769
Parish of Snt. Gertrud
Rīgas Vecā Svētās Ģertrūdes Evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca
Ģertrūdes iela 8, Rīga, LV-1010
Strādā par mācītāja palīgu jeb adjunktu.

1771 – 1776
Bückeburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
Virsmācītājs un konsistorijas padomnieks, Herdera raksti būtiski ietekmē Vētras un dziņu laikmetu vācu literatūrā. Herdera piemiņai Bikeburgā uzstādīts piemineklis.

1776 – 1803
Evangelically Lutheran Parish in Weimar
Veimāra, Pētera un Pāvila baznīca
99423 Weimar, Germany
Herders ir Saksijas-Veimāras hercogistes ģenerālsuperintendents un Veimāras virsmācītājs, apglabāts Pētera Pāvila baznīcas, dzīvojis mājā blakus baznīcai.
Travelled1766 – 1768
Grāvenheides muiža
Ūdeļu iela 30, Vidzemes priekšpilsēta, Rīga, LV-1064, Latvia
pavada vasaras draugu lokā Juglas ezera krastā un, iespējams, vēro latviešu Jāņu rituālu, sacer veltījuma dzejoli Grāvenheides muižai (1766)

Biķeru (Biķernieku) evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca

Dalība pie baznīcas iesvētīšanas ar paša sacerētu tekstu apsveikuma kantātei.

1769 – 1771
Paris, France
No 1769. gada rudens līdz 1771. gadam Herders ceļo: Parīze, Brisele, Antverpene, Amsterdama, Hamburga, Eitne (Eutin), Hanovera, Kasele, Getingene, Strasburga, Bikeburga

05.06.1769 – 15.07.1769
Nantes, Pays de la Loire, France

Jūras ceļojums kopā ar Rīgas paziņu Georgu Bērensu no Rīgas uz Nanti. Nantē Herders pavada laiku līdz 4. novembrim Bērensa draugu namā, tad dodas tālāk uz Parīzi, kurā ierodas 8. novembrī 1769. gadā

Ort/Zeit des Todes18.12.1803
Weimar, Thuringia, Germany
Weimar, Thuringia, Germany

Apglabāts Veimāras sv. Pētera un Pāvila baznīcā, kas tagad tiek saukta par Herdera baznīcu.

Herdera laukums
Herdera laukums, Rīga

Par godu simtajai gadadienai kopš Herdera ierašanās Rīgā un 120. gadadienai kopš viņa dzimšanas 1864. gadā atklāts piemineklis bijušajā Mazo Svaru laukumā pretī mājai, kurā Herders dzīvojis - J.G.Herdera krūšutēls uz čuguna postamenta. Paraugs: Herdera piemineklis Veimārā (Herders mācītāja talārā pilnā augumā). Arhitekts Ludvigs Šallers (Schaller, 1804-1865). Uzraksti uz pieminekļa: "Johann Gottfried Herder. Licht, Liebe, Leben. 25.VIII 1864." [Johans Gotfrīds Herders. Gaisma, mīlestība, dzīve] - dzīves moto uz zīmoggredzena un kapakmens; zem tā: "Collaborator der Dom-Schule und Pastor adj. an den Vorstadt-Kirchen in Riga, 1764-1769" [Domskolas palīgskolotājs un palīgmācītājs priekšpilsētas baznīcās Rīgā, 1764-1769]; pa labi: "geboren den 25. August 1744 in Mohrungen (Ost-Preussen)" [dzimis 25. augustā Morungenā, Austrumprūsijā], pa kreisi: "Gestorben d.18.December 1803 in Weimar" [miris 18. decembrī 1803. gadā Veimārā]. Pie pieminekļa iestādīts ozols, ap to izvietota barokāls dzelzs žogs ar margām.

1950. gados pieminekli demontē, postamentu domājams pārkausē. 1959. gadā sakarā ar Vācijas Demokrātiskās republikas vadītāju vizīti Rīgā Herdera pieminekli steidzīgi atjauno pēc arhitekta Kārļa Plūksnes norādījumiem, uzstādot uz granīta postamenta ar uzrakstu "Johans Gotfrīds Herders (1744-1803)" vienīgi latviešu valodā.

1921 – 1939
Herder Institut Riga
Elizabetes iela 29, Rīga
Elizabetes iela 29, Rīga, LV-1010

Herdera vārdā nosaukts institūts Rīgā, kas sniedz Baltijas vāciešiem iespēju iegūt augstāko izglītību dzimtenē un savā dzimtajā valodā. Institūts ir arī nozīmīgs vācbaltiešu kultūras izpētes centrs. Pēc institūta slēgšanas Rīgā un vācbaltiešu izceļošanas 1939. gadā daļa no vācbaltiešu arhīviem un dokmentu kolekcijām nokļuva Mārburgā (Vācijā), kur 1950. gadā tika izveidots "Herdera institūts" - pētniecības centrs vācbaltiešu kultūras Baltijā izpētei. Herdera institūts ar bagātu arhīvu un bibliotēku Marburgā darbojas joprojām.

1921 – 1941
Riga Herder Society
Ar J.G.Herdera vārdu saistītā biedrība dibināta Rīgā ar mērķi izveidot un atbalstīt Herdera institūtu, augstāko mācību iestādi Baltijas vāciešiem Baltijā. Biedrībai arī nozīmīga loma sakaru uzturēšanā starp Vāciju un Latviju starpkaru periodā.

Riga Herder Secondary School
Skolas iela 25, Rīga
Skolas iela 25, Rīga, LV-1010
Skola ieguvusi J.G.Herdera vārdu 1991. gadā. Rīgas Herdera vidusskola izveidojusies no bijušās Rīgas 12. vidusskolas ar krievu mācībvalodu. 2014. gadā skola pievienota Rīgas Krievu vidusskolai un ieguvusi J.G. Herdera Rīgas Grīziņkalna vidusskolas nosaukumu. Pašlaik skola atrodas Latgales priekšpilsētā.


Zeige 1-19 von 19 Einträgen.
#OrtDatumTypVietas tips
(Morąg, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland)
25.08.1744Birth time/placeCity
2Herdera laukums
(Herdera laukums, Rīga)
1764 - 1769ResidenceSquare
(Weimar, Thuringia, Germany)
18.12.1803Ort/Zeit des TodesCity
(Weimar, Thuringia, Germany)
(Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia)
1762 - 1764AusbildungCity
6Mazā Skolas iela, Rīga24.02.1765 - 08.05.1769Working placeStreet
7Rīgas Doma krusteja
(Palasta iela 4, Rīga, LV-1050)
01.01.1765 - 01.05.1769Working placeBuilding, house
8Rīgas Vecā Svētās Ģertrūdes Evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca
(Ģertrūdes iela 8, Rīga, LV-1010)
06.07.1767 - 08.05.1769Working placeChurch
9Rīgas Jēzus baznīca
(Elijas iela 18, Latgales priekšpilsēta, Rīga, LV-1050, Latvia)
01.07.1767 - 09.05.1769Working placeChurch
(Bückeburg, Lower Saxony, Germany)
1771 - 1776Working placeCity
11Veimāra, Pētera un Pāvila baznīca
(99423 Weimar, Germany)
1776 - 1803Working placeChurch
12Biķeru (Biķernieku) evaņģēliski luteriskā baznīca01.10.1766TravelledChurch
13Grāvenheides muiža
(Ūdeļu iela 30, Vidzemes priekšpilsēta, Rīga, LV-1064, Latvia)
1766 - 1768TravelledManor house
(Nantes, Pays de la Loire, France)
05.06.1769 - 15.07.1769TravelledCity
(Paris, France)
1769 - 1771TravelledCity
16Herdera laukums
(Herdera laukums, Rīga)
17Elizabetes iela 29, Rīga
(Elizabetes iela 29, Rīga, LV-1010)
1921 - 1939MemorialsBuilding, house
1921 - 1941MemorialsCity
19Skolas iela 25, Rīga
(Skolas iela 25, Rīga, LV-1010)
1991MemorialsBuilding, house

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